Wednesday, 23 February 2011

ZERO probability.....................

The probability by chance for favorable mutations to occur in order for any evolutionary change to take place is........... ZERO .
Stanislav Ulam :
It seems to require many thousands , perhaps millions of successive mutations to produce even the easiest complexity we see in life now . It appears naively at least , t...hat no matter how large the probabilty of a single mutations is , should it be even as great as one - half , you would get this probability raised to a millionth power , which is so very close to zero that the chances of such a chain seem to be practically non-existent .
Stanislav M Ulam , "How to formulate mathematically problems of rate of evolution." In mathematical challenges .21.

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